Biochemistry II: Signals, Proliferation, Genes, and Sports


Eukaryotic Genome Organization in General (Definitions)

DNA — Deoxyribonucleic acid

RNA — Ribonucleic acid

  • Function: Information storage — required for protein translation, has ribosomal activity
  • Composed of: purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, Purin nucleotide synthesis)
  • Nucleotides in RNA:
    • Uracil
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Adenine

Other components

  • Gene: coding sequence of a protein
  • EXON: coding region of a gene
  • INTRON: non-coding region of a gene
  • Promoter region: region of DNA where the transcription of a gene starts/initiates
  • TATA box: a sequence of the promoter region, where the transcription starts
  • Nucleosome: unit of the chromatin, composed of 8 Histones together with the DNA coiled around them
  • Histone(s) proteins: special alkalic proteins
    • Function: packaging  the DNA into structural units (nucleosomes)
  • Chromatin: DNA and Histone proteins together in eukaryotic cells
    • Types of chromatin: Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
    • EU-chromatin: Active, loosen up, gene expression
    • HETERO-chromatin: closed, tightened, no gene expression
  • Eukaryotic genome:  the total amount of genetic information in the cell
    • Composed of:
      • DNA
      • RNAs
      • mitochondrial DNA
  • Chromosome(s): the super-condensed form of DNA
    • Appearance: only during cell division

      Schematic of gene expression with important features of it


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