Biochemistry II: Signals, Proliferation, Genes, and Sports


RNA Processing


  • Central dogma: DNA – RNA – PROTEIN
  • Transcription: Copying the information from DNA into mRNA (messenger RNA)
  • Processing: Removal of extra nucleotides, post-transcriptional modification, stabilizing the RNA transcript

Required steps

  1. Chromatin change into the active form (Eukaryotic genome organization in general (definitions))
  2. Transcription factor binds to the opened sequence’s promoter region
  3. Control elements bind to the sequence of the current gene (enhancers, silencers, special transcriptional factors)
  4. Activation of RNA polymerase II
  5. Transcription – production of mRNA (messenger RNA)
  6. Capping
  7. Removal of introns
  8. Poly-AAA tailing
  9. Transport to the cytosol


  1. Cleavage
  2. Elongation
  3. Termination


The primary transcript contains an excess amount of nucleotides in the form of non-coding regions (introns):

  1. 5′ end is capped by the capping enzyme (Figure 1)
  2. The spliceosome is cleaving out the introns (Figure 2)
  3. Polyadenylation of the 3′ end (Figure 3)
  4. Transport to the cytosol
Figure 1. Capping
Figure 2. Cleavage
Figure 3. Polyadenylation

Key terms

  • Primary transcript
  • Endonucleases
  • Exonucleases
  • Capping
  • Polyadenylation
  • Spliceosome
  • Cleavage
  • Intron
  • Exon
  • Transport
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