Vasculature and Lymphatics
Regions and Spaces of the Head
Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Air Sinuses
Pharynx and Esophagus
Layers, Regions and Triangles of the Neck
Larynx, Trachea, and Thyroid Gland
Waldeyer’s Tonsillar Ring
Tissues coming in contact with the external world are always rich in lymphoid tissues, containing immune cells that guard them against pathogens.
The mouth and nose are no exception; they contain masses of lymphatic tissue known as tonsils, which are collectively known as Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring .
This ring consists of two paired (one on each side), and two unpaired tonsils:
|Pharyngeal||Unpaired||The roof of the nasopharynx|
|Tubal||Paired||Around the auditory tube|
|Palatine||Paired||Between the two glossal arches, at the isthmus of the fauces|
|Lingual||Unpaired||Located at the back of the base of the tongue|
1. Moore, Keith L., et al. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwer, 2018.
2. Standring, Susan, and Henry Gray. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Elsevier, 2016.
3. Bertalan, Csillik, et al. Regional Anatomy. Medicina, 2008.